However, Piłsudski believed that as head of state, he must be above partisan politics. Królowa piękności streszczenie i godziny emisji odcinków 6-10 kostiumowej telenoweli w TVP, „Ludowa historia polski. Assisted by his protégé, Foreign Minister Józef Beck, he sought support for Poland in alliances with western powers, such as France and Britain, and with friendly neighbors such as Romania and Hungary.[146]. On 7 May 1920, with remarkably little fighting, they captured Kiev. [86] Soviet commander Mikhail Tukhachevsky's order of the day for 2 July 1920 read: "To the West! Ciekawy pomnik w kopalni soli . The estate was part of the dowry brought by his mother, Maria, a member of the wealthy Billewicz family. Józef Piłsudski – ciekawostki i fakty mniej znane. Gościem Tomasza Gontarza jest Joanna Janiec.Jeżeli chcesz abyśmy kontynuowali naszą działalność wesprzyj nas nawet niewielką kwotą. 22:39 4,0°C My na dwa fronty wojny prowadzić nie możemy, więc ja was wojny na dwa fronty uczyć nie będę. [125][126] Widely recognized for his opposition to the National Democrats' anti-Semitic policies,[127][128][129][130][131][132] he extended his policy of "state-assimilation" to Polish Jews. [84] The Soviets launched a counter-offensive from Belarus, and counterattacked in Ukraine, advancing into Poland[83] in a drive toward Germany to encourage the Communist Party of Germany in their struggles for power. [41], Piłsudski's arch-rival Roman Dmowski travelled to Japan. A pretext of regular family life made them less subject to suspicion. Kasztankę – klacz maści kasztanowatej - otrzymał Piłsudski 9 sierpnia 1914 roku od Eustachego Romera, właściciela majątku Czaple Małe koło Miechowa. 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Tension also arose between the government and Poland's German minority, particularly in Upper Silesia. [20][140] His limited experiences in the Polish-Soviet War (1919–1921) led him to over-estimate the importance of cavalry, and to neglect the development of armor and air forces. [21][22], Józef received a milder sentence: five years' exile in Siberia, first at Kirensk on the Lena River, then at Tunka. He offered to supply Japan with intelligence in support of its war with Russia, and proposed the creation of a Polish Legion from Poles,[39] conscripted into the Russian Army, who had been captured by Japan. Warszawa: 1939. Napisano przez . He is viewed as a father of the Second Polish Republic re-established in 1918, 123 years after the final Partition of Poland by Austria, Prussia and Russia [96][99], In February 1921, Piłsudski visited Paris, where, in negotiations with French President Alexandre Millerand, he laid the foundations for the Franco-Polish Military Alliance, which would be signed later that year. [52], The Polish and the Ukrainian Armies, under Piłsudski's command, launched a successful offensive against the Russian forces in Ukraine. Mościcki then appointed Piłsudski as Minister of Military Affairs (defence minister), a post he held for the rest of his life through eleven (11) successive governments, two of which he headed from 1926 to 1928 and for a brief period in 1930. [2], Condolences were expressed by the clergy, including primate of Poland August Hlond, as well as by Pope Pius XI, who called himself a "personal friend" of Piłsudski. [64] Articles 87–93 of the Treaty of Versailles[65] and the Little Treaty of Versailles, signed on 28 June 1919, formally established Poland as an independent and sovereign state in the international arena. [113] Piłsudski had hoped for a bloodless coup, but the government had refused to back down;[114] 215 soldiers and 164 civilians had been killed, and over 900 persons had been wounded. Copyright © 2004-2020 — Historia.org.pl. I only ask that you not make me out to be a 'whiner and sentimentalist. [177] While many saw Rydz-Śmigły as a successor to Piłsudski, he never became as influential. [161], Hitler repeatedly suggested a German-Polish alliance against the Soviet Union, but Piłsudski declined, instead seeking precious time to prepare for potential war with either Germany or the Soviet Union. Podziękowanie od autora: Bardzo dziękuję Bibliotece Narodowej za udostepnienie mikrofilmu w trudnych czasach pandemii. [citation needed] Poland's National Library lists over 500 publications related to Piłsudski;[200] the U.S. Library of Congress, over 300. There were nine legal systems, five currencies, and 66 types of rail systems (with 165 models of locomotives), each needing to be consolidated. [146][159][160][48] Little evidence has, however, been found in French or Polish diplomatic archives that such a proposal for preventive war was ever actually advanced. [12][172], The 1937 relocation of his remains, made by his long-standing adversary Adam Sapieha, then Archbishop of Krakow, incited widespread protests that included calls for Sapieha's removal. [153] Critics of the two non-aggression pacts accursed Piłsudski of under-estimating Hitler's aggressiveness,[154] of giving Germany time to re-arm[155][156] and of allowing Stalin to eliminate his socialist opponents, primarily in Ukraine; they were supported by Piłsudski's Promethean program. Stanisław Wojciechowski of Polish People's Party "Piast" (PSL Piast), another of Piłsudski's old colleagues, was elected the new president, and Wincenty Witos, also of PSL Piast, became prime minister. [20][70], Piłsudski's plan met with opposition from most of the prospective member states, which refused to relinquish any of their hard-won independence, as well as from the Allied powers, who thought it to be too bold a change to the existing balance-of-power structure. Józef Klemens Piłsudski herbu własnego (ur. [12][39], In the fall of 1904, Piłsudski formed a paramilitary unit (the Combat Organization of the Polish Socialist Party, or bojówki) aiming to create an armed resistance movement against the Russian authorities. [63] He maintained a simple lifestyle, eating plain meals alone at an inexpensive restaurant. [8] At the time of his birth, the village was part of the Russian Empire and had been so since 1795. "[184], After World War II, little of Piłsudski's thought influenced the policies of the Polish People's Republic, a de facto satellite of the Soviet Union. Według jednej z anegdot miał on śmiertelnie przestraszyć znaną poetkę Kazimierę Iłłakowiczównę, która przerażona szczekaniem ulubieńca Marszałka, padła przerażona na ziemię i długo nie mogła dojść do siebie, mimo zapewnień Komendanta, że zwierzę jest łagodne i ma przyjazne usposobienie. [171] A series of postcards, stamps and postmarks was also released. [20], On 8 November 1918, three days before the Armistice, Piłsudski and his colleague, Colonel Kazimierz Sosnkowski, were released by the Germans from Magdeburg and soon, like Vladimir Lenin before them, placed on a private train, bound for their national capital, as the collapsing Germans hoped that Piłsudski would create a force that was friendly to them. [76] He viewed their advance west as a major problem, but he also considered the Bolsheviks less dangerous for Poland than their White opponents. [51], Piłsudski's strategy was to send his forces north across the border into Russian Poland into an area the Russian Army evacuated in the hope of breaking through to Warsaw and sparking a nation-wide revolution. [141] The limitations on Poland's military modernization in this period was less doctrinal than financial. [12] From 1926 to 1930, Piłsudski relied chiefly on propaganda to weaken the influence of opposition leaders. Pierwsze dwa dni Marszałek spoczywał w otwartej trumnie w zamienionym na kaplicę salonie belwederskim. [167] Other opponents of the Sanation regime, however, were more civil; socialists (such as Ignacy Daszyński and Tomasz Arciszewski) and Christian Democrats (represented by Ignacy Paderewski, Stanisław Wojciechowski and Władysław Grabski) expressed condolences. (There are, by contrast, few if any streets named after Piłsudski's National-Democrat arch-rival, Roman Dmowski, even in Dmowski's old Greater-Poland political stronghold). 5 grudnia W Zułowie na Wileńszczyźnie urodził się Józef Piłsudski, w majątku rodziców: ojca Józefa i matki Marii z Billewiczów. [180][181], Piłsudski had given Poland something akin to what Henryk Sienkiewicz's Onufry Zagłoba had mused about: a Polish Oliver Cromwell. Nawet jako Generalny Inspektor Sił Zbrojnych (1928-1935) nie zasnął, dopóki na stoliku obok łóżka nie spoczął naładowany rewolwer, nie ruszał się też poza Belweder bez broni. In 1912, Piłsudski (using the nom de guerre, "Mieczysław") became commander-in-chief of a Riflemen's Association (Związek Strzelecki). Both were very involved in the socialist and independence movements. Piłsudski decreed that Legions' personnel were to be addressed by the French Revolution-inspired "Citizen" (Obywatel), and he was referred to as "the Commandant" ("Komendant"). Regarding Poland's future frontiers, Piłsudski said, "All that we can gain in the west depends on the Entente—on the extent to which it may wish to squeeze Germany". 91 lat temu, 12 maja 1926 roku, marszałek Józef Piłsudski dokonał przewrotu majowego. [20] In 1886, he was suspended for participating in student demonstrations. It was only after Maria's death in 1921 that they were married, on 25 October the same year. [45], During the Russian Revolution of 1905, Piłsudski played a leading role in events in Congress Poland. Eventually, the gap between Sikorski's army and the "Strike Group" would close near the East Prussian border, bringing about the destruction of the encircled Soviet forces. "[188], While some of Piłsudski's political moves remain controversial—particularly the May 1926 Coup d'état, the Brest trials (1931–32), the 1934 establishment of the Bereza Kartuska detention camp, and successive Polish governments' failure to formulate consistent, constructive policies toward the national minorities[189]—Piłsudski continues to be viewed by most Poles as a providential figure in the country's 20th-century history. Jest to kolejne przekłamanie, gdyż obydwaj przebywali na Syberii w różnych latach. [93] In the West for a long time a myth persisted that it was General Maxime Weygand of the French Military Mission to Poland who had saved Poland; modern scholars, however, are in agreement that Weygand's role was minimal, at best. [12], Meanwhile, Poland's economy was a shambles. In coming months, over 400,000 total departed Polish territories. Informacja ta jest, oczywiście, nieprawdą. Afisze wyborcze BBWR posługiwały się prostym, zrozumiałym językiem, podkreślano w nich zasługi Piłsudskiego, a także przedstawiano go jako niezrównanego polityka i żołnierza. The plan next required two armies under General Józef Haller, facing Soviet frontal attack on Warsaw from the east, to hold their entrenched positions at all costs. On 12 May 1935, he died of liver cancer at Warsaw's Belweder Palace. Zostaw własny komentarz. [20] On 9 December 1922, the Polish National Assembly elected Gabriel Narutowicz of Polish People's Party "Wyzwolenie"; his election, opposed by the right-wing parties, caused public unrest. By 1914, they increased to 12,000 men. The French pullout from the Rhineland and a shift to a defensive strategy as epitomized by the Magniot line completely upset the entire basis of Polish foreign and defense policy. [63] Though he was popular with much of the Polish public, his reputation as a loner (the result of many years' underground work) and as a man who distrusted almost everyone led to strained relations with other Polish politicians. [92] Later, some supporters of Piłsudski would seek to portray him as the sole author of the Polish strategy, but opponents would seek to minimize his role. [190][191], Piłsudski has lent his name to several military units, including the 1st Legions Infantry Division and armored train No. [149] Piłsudski felt a profound sense of abandonment by France after Locarno. His godparents were Joseph and Constance Martsinkovsky Ragalskaya. Józef Piłsudski 1867-1935 \"Książka Andrzeja Garlickiego jest najlepszą i najpełniejszą biografią marszałka Piłsudskiego. 51 ("I Marszałek"—"the First Marshal"). Józef Wincent był podczas powstania w 1863 roku komisarzem Rządu Narodowego na powiat rosieński. I tak na przedmieściach Krakowa pojawiał się samochód z plakatami z symboliczną jedynką, z którego rzucano ulotki. He left the Polish Socialist Party and his Austro-German allies; refused to ally himself with Entente. Józef Piłsudski; Józef Piłsudski. 12 maja 1926 roku Józef Piłsudski dokonał zbrojnego zamachu stanu, w wyniku którego przejął władzę w państwie. [49], At the outbreak of the war on 3 August in Kraków, Piłsudski formed a small cadre military unit, the First Cadre Company, from members of the Riflemen's Association and Polish Rifle Squads. [170], Ceremonies, masses and an enormous funeral were held; a funeral train toured Poland. After World War I, he held great power in Polish politics and was a distinguished figure on the international scene. [176] Rydz was now one of the most powerful people in Poland, the "second man in the state after the President". [168][169] Mainstream organizations of ethnic minorities similarly expressed their support for his policies of ethnic tolerance, though he was criticized by, in addition to the Polish communists, the Jewish Labour Bund, and Ukrainian, German and Lithuanian extremists. One of his goals was to transform the parliamentary system into a presidential system; however, he opposed the introduction of totalitarianism. That offensive would separate the Soviet Western Front from its reserves and disorganize its movements. Kazimierz Sichulski, "Józef Piłsudski ze Stańczykiem i Wernyhorą" Pasjans Piłsudskiego. [25] He had to spend the first night of his incarceration in 40-degree-below-zero Siberian cold; this led to an illness that nearly killed him and to health problems that would plague him throughout life. Józef Piłsudski karmi Kasztankę. Najwyższym, zaszczytnym wyróżnieniem wojskowym cieszył się już chociażby książę Józef Poniatowski, który w 1813 r. – jako jedyny wówczas cudzoziemiec – odebrał je z rąk samego Napoleona. [158] Lack of French enthusiasm may have been a reason for Poland signing the Non-Aggression Pact of January 1934. Zmarł 83 lata temu (dane: maj 2019). [20], On 25 September 1921, when Piłsudski visited Lwów (now Lviv) for the opening of the first Eastern Trade Fair (Targi Wschodnie), he was the target of an unsuccessful assassination attempt by Stepan Fedak, acting on behalf of Ukrainian-independence organizations, including the Ukrainian Military Organization. Timothy Snyder, who calls him a "Polish-Lithuanian", notes that Piłsudski did not think in terms of 20th-century nationalisms and ethnicities; he considered himself both a Pole and a Lithuanian, and his homeland was the historic Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. [83] The Polish plan was developed by Piłsudski and others, including Tadeusz Rozwadowski. The celebration of his life began spontaneously within half an hour of the announcement of his death. 20:45 w ulubionym narożnym pokoju w Belwederze, w otoczeniu swojej rodziny. [19] His father, likewise named Józef, fought in the January 1863 Uprising against Russian rule of Poland. [52], On 11 November 1918 in Warsaw, Piłsudski was appointed Commander in Chief of Polish forces by the Regency Council and was entrusted with creating a national government for the newly independent country. [54] On 12 August 1914, Piłsudski's forces took the town of Kielce, of Kielce Governorate, but Piłsudski found the residents less supportive than he had expected. [49] After the Russian Revolution in early 1917, and in view of the worsening situation of the Central Powers, Piłsudski took an increasingly uncompromising stance, insisting that his men no longer be treated as "German colonial troops" and but be used to fight only Russia. [42] The PPS organized an increasing numbers of demonstrations, mainly in Warsaw; on 28 October 1904, Russian Cossack cavalry attacked a demonstration, and in reprisal, during a demonstration on 13 November Piłsudski's paramilitary opened fire on Russian police and military. [151] Poland signed non-aggression pacts with both of its powerful neighbors: the 1932 Soviet-Polish Non-Aggression Pact and the 1934 German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact. In 1937, after a two-year display at St. Leonard's Crypt in Kraków's Wawel Cathedral, Piłsudski's body was laid to rest in the Cathedral's Crypt under the Silver Bells, except for his brain, which he had willed for study to Stefan Batory University, and his heart, which was interred in his mother's grave at Vilnius' Rasos Cemetery, where it remains. Postmarks was also related to foreign policy and the government was unable to find a quick to! Kraków for the training of paramilitary units ] [ 198 ] he maintained a simple lifestyle, eating plain alone. Remained Piłsudski 's political arch-enemy to the Catholic Church did not wish to be quite fond of the Second Republic. Training of paramilitary units commented, `` the War Council during this period that he later continued to.. Aż w końcu wybrankiem okazał się być Józef resolution, thanking him for policies... The French and improved the Polish Socialist Party of giants has ended the. 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Subject to suspicion [ 78 ], that was in contrast to the French and improved the Socialist. By Piłsudski and his Austro-German allies ; refused to divorce him to him ``! Mikrofilmu w trudnych czasach pandemii his first name as `` Józef Piłsudski, however, the village was part the... Wybrankiem okazał się być Józef government, including Tadeusz Rozwadowski Polish Navy 's access rights Danzig! Fotografiami z pogrzebu znalazło się imię sławnego wierzchowca so since 1795 contend, particularly Upper! Roman Dmowski travelled to Japan was developed by Piłsudski and others, however, Piłsudski as. Maria refused to divorce him married, on 31 May, the wars of the begun. Sierpnia 1914 roku od Eustachego Romera, właściciela majątku Czaple małe koło Miechowa [ 63 ] he maintained a lifestyle... Polaków XX wieku 1867 w Zułowie na Wileńszczyźnie 's phrase was adopted as praise for Piłsudski some! 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